Nutrient Profiles of Various Diets

Changing from a mixed diet to a Scandinavian vegetarian diet: effects on nutrient intake, food choice, meal pattern and cooking methods.

Twenty healthy, non-smoking, normal-weight omnivores volunteered for a nutrition counselling programme and changed from a mixed to a Scandinavian lactovegetarian diet. Dietary surveys were performed before and 3, 6 and 12 months after the dietary shift. The major trends when changing from a mixed diet to a lactovegetarian diet included an increase in the consumption of fruits, berries, vegetables, herbal tea and dairy products, and a decrease in the intake of biscuits and buns, sweets, alcoholic beverages, coffee and tea.

Quantitative determination of lignans and isoflavonoids in plasma of omnivorous and vegetarian women by isotope dilution gas chromatography-mass spectrometry

The first quantitative method for the determination of both lignans and isoflavonoid phytoestrogens in plasma is presented. Using ion-exchange chromatography the diphenols are separated into two fractions 1) the biologically "active" fraction containing the free compounds + mono- and disulfates and 2) the biologically "inactive" fraction containing the mono- and diglucuronides and the sulfoglucuronides. After hydrolysis the fractions are further purified by solid phase extraction and ion exchange chromatography.

Antioxidant status in long-term adherents to a strict uncooked vegan diet.

Antioxidant status was investigated in 20 Finnish middle-aged female vegans and in one male vegan who were following a strict, uncooked vegan diet ("living food diet"), by means of a dietary survey and biochemical measurements (blood concentrations of vitamins C and E and beta-carotene, and the activities of the zinc/copper-dependent superoxide dismutase and selenium-dependent glutathione peroxidase). Values were compared with those of omnivores matched for sex, age, social status, and residence.

The dietary intake of a group of vegetarian children aged 7-11 years compared with matched omnivores.

There is a lack of information concerning the diet of vegetarian children. The present study compared the dietary intake of fifty vegetarian children, aged 7-11 years, with fifty matched omnivores. Three 3 d food records were completed by each child at intervals of 6 months. The day after completing the record each child was interviewed to clarify food items and assess portion sizes. Food records were analysed using Microdiet (University of Salford). Finger-prick cholesterol and haemoglobin measurements were taken from a subsample of the group.

Dietary intakes of adolescent females consuming vegetarian, semi-vegetarian, and omnivorous diets.

PURPOSE:To determine the energy and nutrient intakes of some omnivorous and vegetarian female adolescents to compare their risk for nutrient inadequacies. METHODS:A convenience sample of 78 lacto-ovo-vegetarians (LOV), 15 semi-vegetarians (SV), and 29 omnivorous (OM) females aged 14-19 years completed three-day weighed records from which mean intakes and major food sources of energy, nutrients, and dietary fiber (as nonstarch polysaccharides (NSP)) were calculated.

Influence of vegetarian and mixed nutrition on selected haematological and biochemical parameters in children.

To evaluate the health and nutritional status of children with two different nutritional habits, the authors examined 26 vegetarians (lacto- and lacto-ovo; an average period of vegetarianism 2.8 years) and 32 individuals on mixed diet (omnivores) in the age range 11-14 years. Vegetarian children had significantly lower erythrocyte number as well as reduced levels of haemoglobin and iron compared to omnivores. The average level of iron did not reach the lower limit of the physiological range and hyposiderinemia was found in 58% of vegetarians vs 9% of omnivores.

Growth, development, and physical fitness of Flemish vegetarian children, adolescents, and young adults.

This study was designed to assess average daily dietary intakes of energy in 82 vegetarian children (group A: 6- 9-y-old girls and 6-11-y-old boys), adolescents (group B: 10- 15-y-old girls and 12-17-y-old boys), and young adults (group C: 16-30-y-old females and 18-30-y-old males) and included determination of height and weight; triceps, suprailiac, and calf skinfold thicknesses; puberty ratings; and physical fitness. Dietary energy intake was lower than recommended values in all 3 groups.

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