Maternal and Child Health

Dietary intake and tissue concentration of fatty acids in omnivore, vegetarian and diabetic pregnancy.

The aim of this study was to determine the effect of fatty acid intake and insulin dependent diabetes on the fatty acid composition of maternal erythrocytes, the placenta and cord. Fatty acid intake (from food frequency questionnaire) and the fatty acid composition of maternal erythrocytes, the placenta and cord from pregnant vegetarians (n = 4) and insulin dependent diabetics (n = 5) was compared with pregnant omnivores (n = 10).

Growth, development, and physical fitness of Flemish vegetarian children, adolescents, and young adults.

This study was designed to assess average daily dietary intakes of energy in 82 vegetarian children (group A: 6- 9-y-old girls and 6-11-y-old boys), adolescents (group B: 10- 15-y-old girls and 12-17-y-old boys), and young adults (group C: 16-30-y-old females and 18-30-y-old males) and included determination of height and weight; triceps, suprailiac, and calf skinfold thicknesses; puberty ratings; and physical fitness. Dietary energy intake was lower than recommended values in all 3 groups.

Considerations in planning vegan diets: children.

This article reviews research on the growth and nutrient intake of vegan children and provides guidelines for counselling parents of vegan children. Although diets of vegan children meet or exceed recommendations for most nutrients, and vegan children have higher intakes of fiber and lower intakes of total fat, saturated fat, and cholesterol than omnivore children, some studies indicate that they may be low in calcium. In addition, bioavailability of zinc and iron from plant foods can be low.

Considerations in planning vegan diets: infants.

Appropriately planned vegan diets can satisfy nutrient needs of infants. The American Dietetic Association and The American Academy of Pediatrics state that vegan diets can promote normal infant growth. It is important for parents to provide appropriate foods for vegan infants, using guidelines like those in this article. Key considerations when working with vegan families include composition of breast milk from vegan women, appropriate breast milk substitutes, supplements, type and amount of dietary fat, and solid food introduction.

Growth and nutrition of Chinese vegetarian children in Hong Kong.

OBJECTIVE:The study investigated the nutritional status of Chinese lacto-ovo-vegetarian children aged 4-14 years. METHODOLOGY:Dietary intake over 7 days was assessed using a computer program, previously used for a local population-based dietary survey. Anthropometric measurements were made and fasting venous blood was examined for serum lipids, haematological data, iron, vitamin B12 and folate status. Bone mineral density (BMD) of the spine (L2 - L4) was measured as a reflection of calcium status. RESULTS:Fifty-one lacto-ovo-vegetarians aged 4-14 years were investigated.

Characteristics of vegetarian adolescents in a multiethnic urban population.

PURPOSE:To examine the prevalence of adolescents' vegetarianism in a multiethnic, urban population, and its correlates with demographic, personal, weight-related, and behavioral factors. METHODS:Self-report and anthropometric data were collected from a representative sample of 4746 adolescents from 31 public middle schools and high schools in the Twin Cities area of Minnesota. Students answered questions concerning vegetarianism, food and weight, and health behaviors. Height and weight were directly measured.

Vegetarian diet planning for adolescents with diabetes.

Adolescents with insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) who choose to be vegetarian have complex nutritional needs because of their continued physical growth and development, their participation in strenuous activities, and their need to consume sufficient carbohydrates to match their insulin doses. Since diet control is a cornerstone of diabetes management, the adolescent who chooses a vegetarian diet may cause their parents needless anxiety.

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