Maternal and Child Health - Breastfeeding

Vitamin B-12 content in breast milk of vegan, vegetarian, and nonvegetarian lactating women in the United States.

BACKGROUND: The nutritional profile of human milk varies significantly between women, and the impact of maternal diet on these variations is not well understood. OBJECTIVE: We analyzed breast-milk vitamin B-12 concentration and vitamin B-12 supplement use pattern among women who adhered to different dietary patterns: vegan, vegetarian, and nonvegetarian. DESIGN: A total of 74 milk samples, 29 from vegan, 19 from vegetarian, and 26 from nonvegetarian breastfeeding mothers, were analyzed.

Safety of soya-based infant formulas in children.

Soya-based infant formulas (SIF) containing soya flour were introduced almost 100 years ago. Modern soya formulas are used in allergy/intolerance to cows' milk-based formulas (CMF), post-infectious diarrhoea, lactose intolerance and galactosaemia, as a vegan human milk (HM) substitute, etc. The safety of SIF is still debated. In the present study, we reviewed the safety of SIF in relation to anthropometric growth, bone health (bone mineral content), immunity, cognition, and reproductive and endocrine functions.

Differences in fatty acid composition of human milk in vegetarian and nonvegetarian women: long-term effect of diet.

The purpose of the current study was to determine whether there were differences in the fatty acid composition of milk from vegetarian mothers compared to nonvegetarian mothers and whether fatty acid composition was related to length of time on a vegetarian diet. Median time on a vegetarian diet was 81 months (range 36-132 months). Milk fat and fatty acids produced de novo in the mammary gland did not differ between diet groups. Milk from vegetarian women (n = 12) contained higher percentages of the precursors of arachidonic acid compared to nonvegetarian women (n = 7).

Effect of vegetarian diet on serum 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D concentrations during lactation.

The effect of maternal diet on serum 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D has not been determined in human lactation. Serum 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D, other calcitropic hormones, osteocalcin, and minerals were examined in lactating and nonlactating women consuming a vegetarian or nonvegetarian diet. The vegetarian diet was a macrobiotic diet consisting primarily of whole cereal grains and vegetables; dairy products, eggs, and meats were generally avoided.

[Vegetarian diets of breastfeeding women in the light of dietary recommendations].

The literature review concerning selected nutritional and health aspects of applying different vegetarian diets by breastfeeding women was presented. The only two types of vegetarian diets: lactoovo- and semi-vegetarian, when properly composed, seem to be relatively safe for mother and her child. The most threatening vegetarian diets for lactating women are those including exclusively products of plant origin (so called restricted diets: vegan or macrobiotic).

Dietary intakes and nutrient status of vegetarian preschool children from a British national survey.

BACKGROUND:Dietary intakes and nutrient status were compared in meat-eaters and non-meat-eaters from the National Diet and Nutrition Survey of children aged 1.5-4.5 years. METHODS:Children (n = 1351) were categorized as 'omnivores' or 'vegetarians', according to whether they consumed meat or meat products during a 4-day dietary record. Blood samples were also obtained for analysis of haematological and biochemical nutrient status. RESULTS:Three per cent of children were 'vegetarian'.

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