Heart Disease and Stroke

Plasma kinetics of chylomicron-like emulsion and lipid transfers to high-density lipoprotein (HDL) in lacto-ovo vegetarian and in omnivorous subjects.

PURPOSE:
Previously, it was showed that vegan diet improves the metabolism of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins by increasing the plasma clearance of atherogenic remnants. The aim of the current study was to investigate this metabolism in lacto-ovo vegetarians whose diet is less strict, allowing the ingestion of eggs and milk. Transfer of lipids to HDL, an important step in HDL metabolism, was tested in vitro.

Chinese lacto-vegetarian diet exerts favorable effects on metabolic parameters, intima-media thickness, and cardiovascular risks in healthy men.

BACKGROUND:

To investigate whether the Chinese lacto-vegetarian diet has protective effects on metabolic and cardiovascular disease (CVD).

Can lifestyle changes reverse coronary heart disease?

In a prospective, randomised, controlled trial to determine whether comprehensive lifestyle changes affect coronary atherosclerosis after 1 year, 28 patients were assigned to an experimental group (low-fat vegetarian diet, stopping smoking, stress management training, and moderate exercise) and 20 to a usual-care control group. 195 coronary artery lesions were analysed by quantitative coronary angiography. The average percentage diameter stenosis regressed from 40·0 (SD 16·9)% to 37·8 (16·5)% in the experimental group yet progressed from 42·7 (15·5)% to 46·1 (18·5)% in the control group.

Diet and chronic degenerative diseases:perspectives from China

A comprehensive ecologic survey of dietary, life-style, and mortality characteristics of 65 counties in rural China showed that diets are substantially richer in foods of plant origin when compared with diets consumed in the more industrialized, Western societies. Mean intakes of animal protein (about one-tenth of the mean intake in the United States as energy percent), total fat (14.5% of energy), and dietary fiber (33.3 g/d) reflected a substantial preference for foods of plant origin. Mean plasma cholesterol concentration, at a3.23-3.49 mmol/L, corresponds to this dietary life- style.

Trans Fatty Acids and Cardiovascular Disease

The intake of trans fat has been associated with coronary heart disease, sudden death from cardiac causes, and diabetes. This article reviews the evidence for physiological and cellular effects of trans fatty acids, unsaturated fatty acids with at least one double bond in the trans configuration. The authors consider the feasibility and potential implications of reducing or eliminating the consumption of trans fatty acids from partially hydrogenated vegetable oils in the United States.

Risk of hospitalization or death from ischemic heart disease among British vegetarians and nonvegetarians: results from the EPIC-Oxford cohort study.

BACKGROUND: Few previous prospective studies have examined differences in incident ischemic heart disease (IHD) risk between vegetarians and nonvegetarians. OBJECTIVE: The objective was to examine the association of a vegetarian diet with risk of incident (nonfatal and fatal) IHD. DESIGN: A total of 44,561 men and women living in England and Scotland who were enrolled in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)-Oxford study, of whom 34% consumed a vegetarian diet at baseline, were part of the analysis.

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