Heart Disease and Stroke

Intensive lifestyle changes for reversal of coronary heart disease.

CONTEXT:
The Lifestyle Heart Trial demonstrated that intensive lifestyle changes may lead to regression of coronary atherosclerosis after 1 year.

OBJECTIVES:
To determine the feasibility of patients to sustain intensive lifestyle changes for a total of 5 years and the effects of these lifestylechanges (without lipid-lowering drugs) on coronary heart disease.

DESIGN:
Randomized controlled trial conducted from 1986 to 1992 using a randomized invitational design.

Low Protein Intake Is Associated with a Major Reduction in IGF-1, Cancer, and Overall Mortality in the 65 and Younger but Not Older Population

Mice and humans with growth hormone receptor/IGF-1 deficiencies display major reductions in age-related diseases. Because protein restriction reduces GHR-IGF-1 activity, we examined links between protein intake and mortality. Respondents aged 50–65 reporting high protein intake had a 75% increase in overall mortality and a 4-fold increase in cancer death risk during the following 18 years. These associations were either abolished or attenuated if the proteins were plant derived.

Vegetarian diets and cardiovascular risk factors in black members of the Adventist Health Study-2.

To compare cardiovascular risk factors between vegetarians and non-vegetarians in black individuals living in the USA.

DESIGN:
A cross-sectional analysis of a sub-set of 592 black women and men enrolled in the Adventist Health Study-2 (AHS-2) cohort of Seventh-day Adventists.

SETTING:
Members of the AHS-2 cohort, who lived in all states of the USA and provinces of Canada.

SUBJECTS:
Black/African-American members of two sub-studies of AHS-2 where blood and physiological measurements were obtained.

Vegetarian Diets and Blood Pressure: A Meta - analysis

IMPORTANCE Previous studies have suggested an association between vegetarian diets and lower blood pressure (BP), but the relationship is not well established. OBJECTIVE To conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis of controlled clinical trials and observational studies that have examined the association between vegetarian diets and BP. DATA SOURCES MEDLINE and Web of Science were searched for articles published in English from 1946 to October 2013 and from 1900 to November 2013, respectively.

Routine vitamin supplementation to prevent cardiovascular disease: a summary of the evidence for the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force.

BACKGROUND:
Antioxidant vitamins are thought to play a role in atherosclerosis. Supplementation of these nutrients has been explored as a means of reducing cardiovascular morbidity and mortality.

PURPOSE:
To assess the evidence of the effectiveness of vitamin supplementation, specifically vitamins A, C, and E; beta-carotene; folic acid; antioxidant combinations; and multivitamin supplements, in preventing cardiovascular disease.

DATA SOURCES:
Cochrane Controlled Trials Registry and MEDLINE (1966 to September 2001), reference lists, and experts.

Alcohol consumption and risk of coronary heart disease among men with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

OBJECTIVES:
The goal of this study was to examine the relationship between alcohol intake and risk of coronary heart disease (CHD) among men with type 2 diabetes.

BACKGROUND:
Type 2 diabetes is associated with an increased risk of CHD. Emerging evidence suggests that moderate alcohol intake is associated with an important reduction in risk of CHD in individuals with type 2 diabetes.

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