Heart Disease and Stroke

Routine vitamin supplementation to prevent cardiovascular disease: a summary of the evidence for the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force.

BACKGROUND:
Antioxidant vitamins are thought to play a role in atherosclerosis. Supplementation of these nutrients has been explored as a means of reducing cardiovascular morbidity and mortality.

PURPOSE:
To assess the evidence of the effectiveness of vitamin supplementation, specifically vitamins A, C, and E; beta-carotene; folic acid; antioxidant combinations; and multivitamin supplements, in preventing cardiovascular disease.

DATA SOURCES:
Cochrane Controlled Trials Registry and MEDLINE (1966 to September 2001), reference lists, and experts.

Alcohol consumption and risk of coronary heart disease among men with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

OBJECTIVES:
The goal of this study was to examine the relationship between alcohol intake and risk of coronary heart disease (CHD) among men with type 2 diabetes.

BACKGROUND:
Type 2 diabetes is associated with an increased risk of CHD. Emerging evidence suggests that moderate alcohol intake is associated with an important reduction in risk of CHD in individuals with type 2 diabetes.

Plasma kinetics of chylomicron-like emulsion and lipid transfers to high-density lipoprotein (HDL) in lacto-ovo vegetarian and in omnivorous subjects.

PURPOSE:

Previously, it was showed that vegan diet improves the metabolism of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins by increasing the plasma clearance of atherogenic remnants. The aim of the current study was to investigate this metabolism in lacto-ovo vegetarians whose diet is less strict, allowing the ingestion of eggs and milk. Transfer of lipids to HDL, an important step in HDL metabolism, was tested in vitro.

Chinese lacto-vegetarian diet exerts favorable effects on metabolic parameters, intima-media thickness, and cardiovascular risks in healthy men.

BACKGROUND:

To investigate whether the Chinese lacto-vegetarian diet has protective effects on metabolic and cardiovascular disease (CVD).

Can lifestyle changes reverse coronary heart disease?

In a prospective, randomised, controlled trial to determine whether comprehensive lifestyle changes affect coronary atherosclerosis after 1 year, 28 patients were assigned to an experimental group (low-fat vegetarian diet, stopping smoking, stress management training, and moderate exercise) and 20 to a usual-care control group. 195 coronary artery lesions were analysed by quantitative coronary angiography. The average percentage diameter stenosis regressed from 40·0 (SD 16·9)% to 37·8 (16·5)% in the experimental group yet progressed from 42·7 (15·5)% to 46·1 (18·5)% in the control group.

Diet and chronic degenerative diseases:perspectives from China

A comprehensive ecologic survey of dietary, life-style, and mortality characteristics of 65 counties in rural China showed that diets are substantially richer in foods of plant origin when compared with diets consumed in the more industrialized, Western societies. Mean intakes of animal protein (about one-tenth of the mean intake in the United States as energy percent), total fat (14.5% of energy), and dietary fiber (33.3 g/d) reflected a substantial preference for foods of plant origin. Mean plasma cholesterol concentration, at a3.23-3.49 mmol/L, corresponds to this dietary life- style.

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