Heart Disease and Stroke

Dietary Patterns among Asian Indians Living in the United States Have Distinct Metabolomic Profiles That Are Associated with Cardiometabolic Risk.

BACKGROUND: Recent studies, primarily in non-Hispanic whites, suggest that dietary patterns have distinct metabolomic signatures that may influence disease risk. However, evidence in South Asians, a group with unique dietary patterns and a high prevalence of cardiometabolic risk, is lacking.
OBJECTIVE: We investigated the metabolomic profiles associated with 2 distinct dietary patterns among a sample of Asian Indians living in the United States. We also examined the cross-sectional associations between metabolomic profiles and cardiometabolic risk markers.

Plant-based diets: Reducing cardiovascular risk by improving sleep quality?

Purpose of review:The goal of this review is to evaluate recent research related to the effects of plant-based diets on sleep patterns. We discuss plausible mechanisms for the link between plant-based diets and sleep, and provide suggestions for future research in this area. Recent findings:Short sleep duration and poor sleep quality have been shown to negatively affect individual dietary habits, through enhanced appetite, increased overall caloric intake, as well as lower diet quality.

Diet for stroke prevention.

Lifestyle is far more important than most physicians suppose. Dietary changes in China that have resulted from increased prosperity are probably responsible for a marked rise in coronary risk in the past several decades, accelerating in recent years. Intake of meat and eggs has increased, while intake of fruits, vegetables and whole grains has decreased. Between 2003 and 2013, coronary mortality in China increased 213%, while stroke mortality increased by 26.6%.

Consumption of a defined, plant-based diet reduces lipoprotein(a), inflammation, and other atherogenic lipoproteins and particles within 4 weeks.

BACKGROUND: Lipoprotein(a) [Lp(a)] is a highly atherogenic lipoprotein and is minimally effected by lifestyle changes. While some drugs can reduce Lp(a), diet has not consistently shown definitive reduction of this biomarker. The effect of consuming a plant-based diet on serum Lp(a) concentrations have not been previously evaluated. HYPOTHESIS: Consumption of a defined, plant-based for 4 weeks reduces Lp(a).

A 48-Hour Vegan Diet Challenge in Healthy Women and Men Induces a BRANCH-Chain Amino Acid Related, Health Associated, Metabolic Signature.

SCOPE:Research is limited on diet challenges to improve health. A short-term, vegan protein diet regimen nutritionally balanced in macronutrient composition compared to an omnivorous diet was hypothesized to improve metabolic measurements of blood sugar regulation, blood lipids, and amino acid metabolism. METHODS AND RESULTS: This randomized, cross-over, controlled vegan verses animal diet challenge was conducted on 21 (11 female,10 male) healthy participants. Fasting plasma was measured during a 3-day diet intervention for clinical biochemistry and metabonomics.

Untold nutrition.

Nutrition is generally investigated, and findings interpreted, in reference to the activities of individual nutrients. Nutrient composition of foods, food labeling, food fortification, and nutrient recommendations are mostly founded on this assumption, a practice commonly known as reductionism. While such information on specifics is important and occasionally useful in practice, it ignores the coordinated, integrated and virtually symphonic nutrient activity (wholism) that occurs in vivo.

Association of vegetarian diet with inflammatory biomarkers: a systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies.

OBJECTIVE: Vegetarian diets contain various anti-inflammatory components. We aimed to investigate the effects of vegetarianism on inflammatory biomarkers when compared with omnivores. DESIGN: Systematic review and meta-analysis. SETTING: Literature search was conducted in Science Direct, Proquest, MEDLINE and Google Scholar up to June 2016. Summary estimates and corresponding 95 % CI were derived via the DerSimonian and Laird method using random effects, subgroup analyses were run to find the source of heterogeneity and a fixed-effect model examined between-subgroup heterogeneity.

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