Heart Disease and Stroke - Mechanisms/Disease Processes

Specifics relating to the development of heart disease and disease mechanisms

Omega-3 fatty acids for nutrition and medicine: considering microalgae oil as a vegetarian source of EPA and DHA.

Long-chain EPA/DHA omega-3 fatty acid supplementation can be co-preventative and co-therapeutic. Current research suggests increasing accumulated long chain omega-3s for health benefits and as natural medicine in several major diseases. But many believe plant omega-3 sources are nutritionally and therapeutically equivalent to the EPA/DHA omega-3 in fish oil. Although healthy, precursor ALA bio-conversion to EPA is inefficient and production of DHA is nearly absent, limiting the protective value of ALA supplementation from flax-oil, for example.

Alteration of cardiovascular autonomic functions by vegetarian diets in postmenopausal women is related to LDL cholesterol levels.

This study was designed to test the hypothesis that alteration of cardiovascular autonomic functions by vegetarian diets in healthy postmenopausal women is related to lipid metabolism. A total of 70 healthy postmenopausal women not on hormone therapy participated in this study: 35 were vegetarians (mean age 55.0 years) and 35 were omnivores (mean age 55.1 years). Cardiovascular autonomic functions and baroreflex sensitivity were evaluated by specific frequency-domain measures of heart rate variability (HRV) and arterial blood pressure fluctuation.

Leptin is associated with the size of the apolipoprotein(a) particle in African tribal populations living on fish or vegetarian diet.

OBJECTIVE:Apolipoprotein(a) [or apo(a)] isoform size, which is strongly genetically determined, showed significant association with the cardiovascular risk. Subjects on a fish diet have lower lipoprotein(a) levels, larger apo(a) isoform sizes and lower leptin levels than their vegetarian diet counterparts. We hypothesized that leptin may contribute to a potential association between the type of diet and the size of apo(a) isoforms.

Could a vegetarian diet reduce exercise-induced oxidative stress? A review of the literature.

Oxidative stress is a natural physiological process that describes an imbalance between free radical production and the ability of the antioxidant defence system of the body to neutralize free radicals. Free radicals can be beneficial as they may promote wound healing and contribute to a healthy immune response. However, free radicals can have a detrimental impact when they interfere with the regulation of apoptosis and thus play a role in the promotion of some cancers and conditions such as cardiovascular disease.

[Influence of vegetarian diet on serum values of homocysteine and total antioxidant status in children].

The vegetarian diet may play a preventive role in the development of chronic diseases such as coronary heart and cardiovascular disease. However increase of homocysteine (Hcy) concentration in peoples avoiding animal products may contribute to an increased atherosclerotic risk in these subjects. Recent evidence has suggested that role of hyperhomocysteinemia in atherogenesis is associated with process of autooxidation, which can promote the production of hydroxyl radicals, resulting in oxidative modification of low density lipoprotein and endothelium injury.

Relationship of carotid intima-media thickness and duration of vegetarian diet in Chinese male vegetarians.

OBJECTIVE:Many studies have shown that vegetarian diet has beneficial effects on the prevention of cardiovascular diseases. However, the effect of vegetarian diet on carotid intima-media thickness (IMT), as well as the association between IMT and duration of vegetarian diet, are still unclear. The present study aims to investigate the influence of duration of vegetarian diet on cardiovascular risk factors, and more importantly on IMT among Chinese vegetarians.

Metabolism of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins and transfer of lipids to high-density lipoproteins (HDL) in vegan and omnivore subjects.

BACKGROUND AND AIMS:Vegan diet excludes all foodstuffs of animal origin and leads to cholesterol lowering and possibly reduction of cardiovascular disease risk. The aim was to investigate whether vegan diet improves the metabolic pathway of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins, consisting in lipoprotein lipolysis and removal from circulation of the resulting remnants and to verify whether the diet alters HDL metabolism by changing lipid transfers to this lipoprotein.

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