Heart Disease and Stroke - Mechanisms/Disease Processes

Specifics relating to the development of heart disease and disease mechanisms

Alteration of cardiovascular autonomic functions by vegetarian diets in postmenopausal women is related to LDL cholesterol levels.

This study was designed to test the hypothesis that alteration of cardiovascular autonomic functions by vegetarian diets in healthy postmenopausal women is related to lipid metabolism. A total of 70 healthy postmenopausal women not on hormone therapy participated in this study: 35 were vegetarians (mean age 55.0 years) and 35 were omnivores (mean age 55.1 years). Cardiovascular autonomic functions and baroreflex sensitivity were evaluated by specific frequency-domain measures of heart rate variability (HRV) and arterial blood pressure fluctuation.

Effects of a Vegetarian Diet on Cardiometabolic Risk Factors, Gut Microbiota, and Plasma Metabolome in Subjects With Ischemic Heart Disease: A Randomized, Crossover Study

Background A vegetarian diet (VD) may reduce future cardiovascular risk in patients with ischemic heart disease. Methods and Results A randomized crossover study was conducted in subjects with ischemic heart disease, assigned to 4-week intervention periods of isocaloric VD and meat diet (MD) with individually designed diet plans, separated by a 4-week washout period. The primary outcome was difference in oxidized low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) between diets.

The Effect of On-Line Hemodiafiltration, Vegetarian Diet, and Urine Volume on Advanced Glycosylation End Products Measured by Changes in Skin Auto-Fluorescence.

Increasing urea clearance by hemodialysis (HD) has not improved patient survival. Hemodiafiltration (HDF) has been reported to reduce cardiovascular mortality. HDF increases middle sized solute clearances. Advanced glycosylation end products (AGEs) are associated with increased cardiovascular mortality. We wished to determine whether HDF reduces AGEs. Skin auto-fluorescence (SAF) measures circulating AGEs deposited in the skin. We compared SAF measurements 12 months apart in high flux HD and HDF patients. At enrollment SAF was not different (HD 3.34 ± 0.71 vs. HDF 3.48 ± 1.05 AU).

Lower C-reactive protein and IL-6 associated with vegetarian diets are mediated by BMI.

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The mechanism by which vegetarian diets are associated with less inflammation is not clear. We investigated the role of BMI as a mediator in the relationship between vegetarian diet and concentrations of C-reactive protein (CRP), and the cytokines IL-6, IL-10 and TNF-α.

Plant-based diets: Reducing cardiovascular risk by improving sleep quality?

Purpose of review:The goal of this review is to evaluate recent research related to the effects of plant-based diets on sleep patterns. We discuss plausible mechanisms for the link between plant-based diets and sleep, and provide suggestions for future research in this area. Recent findings:Short sleep duration and poor sleep quality have been shown to negatively affect individual dietary habits, through enhanced appetite, increased overall caloric intake, as well as lower diet quality.

Untold nutrition.

Nutrition is generally investigated, and findings interpreted, in reference to the activities of individual nutrients. Nutrient composition of foods, food labeling, food fortification, and nutrient recommendations are mostly founded on this assumption, a practice commonly known as reductionism. While such information on specifics is important and occasionally useful in practice, it ignores the coordinated, integrated and virtually symphonic nutrient activity (wholism) that occurs in vivo.

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