Dietary interventions with heart disease patients
BACKGROUND: Only a few randomized dietary intervention studies that investigated the effects of lacto-ovo vegetarian diet (Vd) in clinically healthy omnivorous subjects are available.
BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a major economic burden in the United States. CVD risk factors, particularly hypertension and hypercholesterolemia, are typically treated with drug therapy. Five-year efficacy of such drugs to prevent CVD is estimated to be 5%. Plant-based diets have emerged as effective mitigators of these risk factors.
HYPOTHESIS: The implementation of a defined, plant-based diet for 4 weeks in an outpatient clinical setting may mitigate CVD risk factors and reduce patient drug burden.
BACKGROUND: Intestinal microbiota have been found to be linked to cardiovascular disease via conversion of the dietary compounds choline and carnitine to the atherogenic metabolite TMAO (trimethylamine-N-oxide). Specifically, a vegan diet was associated with decreased plasma TMAO levels and nearly absent TMAO production on carnitine challenge.
BACKGROUND: Lipoprotein(a) [Lp(a)] is a highly atherogenic lipoprotein and is minimally effected by lifestyle changes. While some drugs can reduce Lp(a), diet has not consistently shown definitive reduction of this biomarker.
SCOPE:Research is limited on diet challenges to improve health. A short-term, vegan protein diet regimen nutritionally balanced in macronutrient composition compared to an omnivorous diet was hypothesized to improve metabolic measurements of blood sugar regulation, blood lipids, and amino acid metabolism. METHODS AND RESULTS: This randomized, cross-over, controlled vegan verses animal diet challenge was conducted on 21 (11 female,10 male) healthy participants. Fasting plasma was measured during a 3-day diet intervention for clinical biochemistry and metabonomics.
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review aims to summarize and discuss the role of plant-based nutrition as an adjunct to the management of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Discussion of nutrition and the benefits of a plant-based diet should be highlighted during healthcare provider visits as an essential part of the overall CVD prevention and management care plan. RECENT FINDINGS: Evidence from prospective cohort studies indicates that a high consumption of predominantly plant-based foods, such as fruit and vegetables, nuts, and whole grains, is associated with a significantly lower risk of CVD.
Vegetarian diets exclude all animal flesh and are being widely adopted by an increasing number of people; however, effects on blood lipid concentrations remain unclear. This meta-analysis aimed to quantitatively assess the overall effects of vegetarian diets on blood lipids.
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