Diet and urinary estrogen profile in premenopausal omnivorous and vegetarian women and in premenopausal women with breast cancer.

The urinary estrogen profile was studied in the midfollicular phase twice, and diet four times during 1 yr in 10 premenopausal breast cancer (BC) patients consuming an omnivorous normal Finnish diet and in two control groups, one consuming an omnivorous (n = 12) and the other a lactovegetarian (n = 11) diet. Total fat intake in relation to caloric intake was almost identical in all three groups. Only with regard to grain fiber intake did the BC patients differ significantly from both other groups.

Natural killer cells, vitamins, and other blood components of vegetarian and omnivorous men.

The study population consisted of male vegetarians (aged 28-50 years), who were recruited from the vegetarian cohort being followed by the Department of Epidemiology (German Cancer Research Center, Heidelberg, FRG), and the same number of age- and sex-matched controls from the personnel of the same center. Among the vitamins tested, only the level of carotene was significantly higher in vegetarians; the levels of vitamin A, K, and E were not elevated. Among the other blood parameters tested, only creatinine and glutamine-transferase levels were significantly lower in vegetarians.

Diet and plasma androgens in postmenopausal vegetarian and omnivorous women and postmenopausal women with breast cancer.

We studied 27 postmenopausal women, 9 vegetarians, 10 omnivores, and 8 apparently healthy women with breast cancer (BC), four times during 1 y. Dietary intakes were recorded and plasma androgens and sex-hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) binding capacity were determined. Androstenedione (A), testosterone (T), free T (FT), and SHBG were higher in omnivores than in vegetarians. In multiple correlation analysis, intakes of protein and fat were positively correlated with A, T, and FT, whereas the intakes of carbohydrate, grain, total fiber, and grain fiber showed the opposite correlations.

Hormone levels in vegetarian and nonvegetarian teenage girls: potential implications for breast cancer risk.

Between September 1984 and June 1985, a total of 75 adolescent girls, 35 vegetarians residing in a Seventh-Day Adventist school and 40 nonvegetarians residing in a private non-Adventist boarding school, underwent measurement of their plasma hormone levels in the follicular and luteal phase of their menstrual cycles as well as dietary intake measured by 3-day food records, medical history, height, and weight.

Fecapentaene excretion and fecal mutagenicity in relation to nutrient intake and fecal parameters in humans on omnivorous and vegetarian diets.

Fecapentaenes are strong fecal mutagenic compounds presumably occurring in the majority of Western human individuals, and are possibly essential initiators of colon carcinogenesis. Dietary factors have been shown to influence colorectal cancer risk and to modulate both fecal mutagenicity and fecapentaene concentrations. Therefore, in this study, excretion of fecapentaenes is determined in humans consuming either vegetarian or omnivorous diets. The results show that the most predominant fecapentaene forms are excreted in higher concentrations by vegetarians.

Vegetarian diets and colon cancer: the German experience.

The study assessed mortality and morbidity risks as related to nutritional status of moderate and strict vegetarians in Germany. The total cohort of 1904 self-identified persons was followed up for 11 y. Compared with national mortality rates for Federal Republic of Germany, the observed deaths for all causes were below expectation by a factor of 0.44 for men and 0.53 for women. The mortality for colon cancer was reduced [standardized mortality ration (SMR 44.1 for men and 77.9 for women]. No deaths were observed from rectal cancer.

[Influence of the diet on cell proliferation in the large bowel and the rectum. Does a strict vegetarian diet reduct the risk of intestinal cancer?].

Colorectal cancers are the most frequent cancer in Norway for men and women combined. Several theories have been suggested as etiological explanations. In this review the influence of dietary factors on the cell proliferation rate has been evaluated. A higher cell proliferation rate is statistically associated with increased risk of colorectal cancer. Foods associated with a lower cell proliferation rate match the staple foods in parts of the world were the incidence of colorectal cancer is low. Vegetarians show a low rate of cell proliferation, and low incidence of colorectal cancer.


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