Cancer

High protein intake promotes the growth of hepatic preneoplastic foci in Fischer #344 rats: evidence that early remodeled foci retain the potential for future growth.

The effects of successive administration, withdrawal and readministration of high protein diets (20% casein) on the promotional growth, remodeling and regrowth of aflatoxin B1-induced preneoplastic liver lesions (foci) were examined. Weanling male Fischer 344 rats were given 10 intragastric doses of aflatoxin B1 at a level of 250 micrograms/kg body weight over a 2-wk dosing period (initiation). The subsequent 12-wk period was subdivided into four feeding periods, each lasting 3 wk (promotion).

Fecal hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase activities in vegetarian Seventh-Day Adventists, control subjects, and bowel cancer patients.

Cell-free extracts were prepared from mixed fecal anaerobic bacteria grown from stools of 14 vegetarian Seventh-Day Adventists, 16 omnivorous control subjects, and eight patients recently diagnosed with cancer of the large bowel. Preparations were assayed for NAD- and NADP-dependent 3alpha-, 7alpha- and 12alpha-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases with bile salts and androsterone as substrates (eight substrate-cofactor combinations were tested).

Effect of a vegetarian diet and dexamethasone on plasma prolactin, testosterone and dehydroepiandrosterone in men and women.

This study reports the effect of a vegetarian diet and dexamethasone administration on the hormone status of healthy Caucasian men and premenopausal women. A lower nocturnal release of prolactin and testosterone occurred in men fed a vegetarian diet, while in women, dexamethasone administration decreased the nocturnal release of prolactin and caused a greater decrease of plasma dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA).

Diet and reproductive hormones: a study of vegetarian and nonvegetarian postmenopausal women.

In comparison with matched nonvegetarian women, postmenopausal vegetarian women were found to have lower urinary levels of estriol and total estrogens, lower plasma prolactin levels, and higher plasma sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) levels. These differences were not explained by differences in body weight or obesity. Plasma SHBG levels were highly correlated with plasma high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels, which were also higher in vegetarians than in nonvegetarians.

Cancerostatic effect of vegetarian diets.

A cancerostatic effect of vegetarian diets is proposed on the basis of a selective alteration of the metabolic pathways of fatty acids in neoplastic cells. Most vegetables lack the enzyme 6-desaturase (6D), which converts linoleic to arachidonic acid. Human cells have 6D, and therefore humans do not need to eat the higher polyunsaturated fatty acids found in animal tissues. Many neoplastic cells have lost the activity of 6D. A vegetarian diet would deprive neoplastic cells of higher-chain fatty acids and inhibit the activity of 6D.

Dietary and hormonal interrelationships among vegetarian Seventh-Day Adventists and nonvegetarian men

The relationship between dietary nutrients and plasma testosterone, 5 alpha-dihydrotestosterone, estradiol-17 beta, luteinizing hormone, and prolactin levels was investigated in 12 Seventh-Day Adventist (SDA) vegetarian (SV), 10 SDA nonvegetarian (SNV), and 8 non-SDA nonvegetarian (NV) men. Fasting blood samples and 3-day dietary intake information were obtained from each subject. The SV subjects consumed significantly more crude and dietary fiber than the SNV and NV subjects, respectively.

The binding of blood-borne estrogens in normal vegetarian and omnivorous women and the risk of breast cancer.

Serial blood samples were taken at two-hour intervals over a 24-hour period from 25 premenopausal vegetarians (12 vegans and 13 ovolactovegetarians) and from 21 omnivorous controls. All members of the former group had been on a vegetarian diet for a minimum of three years. The mean proportion of estradiol unbound to blood proteins was similar in both vegetarians (1.26%) and meat eaters (1.16%). However, the amount bound to albumin was significantly raised in vegetarians (50.1% vs.

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