Cancer

Thermogenesis, low-protein diets, and decreased development of AFB1-induced preneoplastic foci in rat liver.

The development of hepatocellular, putatively preneoplastic, gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase positive (GGT+) foci and tumors induced by aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) has been shown to be reduced in male F344 rats fed a diet containing 6% protein (as casein). This reduction occurs despite increased energy intake, when compared with animals fed a diet containing 22% protein.

Associations between breast cancer, plasma triglycerides, and cholesterol

A case-control study investigating the association between plasma lipids and breast cancer was conducted among women aged 30-80 in Buffalo, NY. All eligible women from a large breast clinic and two area physicians' offices were requested to participate over a one-year period. Subjects completed a health questionnaire and donated a fasting blood sample prior to diagnostic breast biopsies. The 83 women found to have breast cancer (cases) had significantly higher plasma triglyceride values than did the 113 women found not to have breast cancer (controls).

High protein intake promotes the growth of hepatic preneoplastic foci in Fischer #344 rats: evidence that early remodeled foci retain the potential for future growth.

The effects of successive administration, withdrawal and readministration of high protein diets (20% casein) on the promotional growth, remodeling and regrowth of aflatoxin B1-induced preneoplastic liver lesions (foci) were examined. Weanling male Fischer 344 rats were given 10 intragastric doses of aflatoxin B1 at a level of 250 micrograms/kg body weight over a 2-wk dosing period (initiation). The subsequent 12-wk period was subdivided into four feeding periods, each lasting 3 wk (promotion).

Fecal hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase activities in vegetarian Seventh-Day Adventists, control subjects, and bowel cancer patients.

Cell-free extracts were prepared from mixed fecal anaerobic bacteria grown from stools of 14 vegetarian Seventh-Day Adventists, 16 omnivorous control subjects, and eight patients recently diagnosed with cancer of the large bowel. Preparations were assayed for NAD- and NADP-dependent 3alpha-, 7alpha- and 12alpha-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases with bile salts and androsterone as substrates (eight substrate-cofactor combinations were tested).

Effect of a vegetarian diet and dexamethasone on plasma prolactin, testosterone and dehydroepiandrosterone in men and women.

This study reports the effect of a vegetarian diet and dexamethasone administration on the hormone status of healthy Caucasian men and premenopausal women. A lower nocturnal release of prolactin and testosterone occurred in men fed a vegetarian diet, while in women, dexamethasone administration decreased the nocturnal release of prolactin and caused a greater decrease of plasma dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA).

Diet and reproductive hormones: a study of vegetarian and nonvegetarian postmenopausal women.

In comparison with matched nonvegetarian women, postmenopausal vegetarian women were found to have lower urinary levels of estriol and total estrogens, lower plasma prolactin levels, and higher plasma sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) levels. These differences were not explained by differences in body weight or obesity. Plasma SHBG levels were highly correlated with plasma high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels, which were also higher in vegetarians than in nonvegetarians.

Cancerostatic effect of vegetarian diets.

A cancerostatic effect of vegetarian diets is proposed on the basis of a selective alteration of the metabolic pathways of fatty acids in neoplastic cells. Most vegetables lack the enzyme 6-desaturase (6D), which converts linoleic to arachidonic acid. Human cells have 6D, and therefore humans do not need to eat the higher polyunsaturated fatty acids found in animal tissues. Many neoplastic cells have lost the activity of 6D. A vegetarian diet would deprive neoplastic cells of higher-chain fatty acids and inhibit the activity of 6D.

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