Cancer

Dairy products, calcium, phosphorous, vitamin D, and risk of prostate cancer (Sweden).

OBJECTIVES:
Dairy products consistently have been associated with an increased risk of prostate cancer, yet the mechanism of this relationship remains unknown. Recent hypotheses propose that 1,25 dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25 D) is protective for prostate cancer. One study in the United States found that calcium consumption, which can lower circulating 1,25 D, was associated with higher risk of advanced prostate cancer, and we sought to address this hypothesis in a distinct population.

Calcium and fructose intake in relation to risk of prostate cancer.

Laboratory and clinical data indicate an antitumor effect of 1,25(OH)2 vitamin D (1,25(OH)2D) on prostate cancer. High calcium intake suppresses formation of 1,25(OH)2D from 25(OH)D, thereby decreasing the 1,25(OH)2D level. Ingestion of fructose reduces plasma phosphate transiently, and hypophosphatemia stimulates 1,25(OH)2D production. We thus conducted a prospective study among 47,781 men of the Health Professionals Follow-Up Study free of cancer in 1986 to examine whether calcium and fructose intake influenced risk of prostate cancer.

Plasma Phospholipid Fatty Acids and Prostate Cancer Risk in the SELECT Trial.

BACKGROUND:
Studies of dietary ω-3 fatty acid intake and prostate cancer risk are inconsistent; however, recent large prospective studies have found increased risk of prostate cancer among men with high blood concentrations of long-chain ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids ([LCω-3PUFA] 20:5ω3; 22:5ω3; 22:6ω3]. This case-cohort study examines associations between plasma phospholipid fatty acids and prostate cancer risk among participants in the Selenium and Vitamin E Cancer Prevention Trial.

Antiproliferative action of vitamin D-related compounds and insulin-like growth factor-binding protein 5 accumulation.

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE:
Vitamin D-related compounds can inhibit cancer cell growth, but the biologic mechanism of this inhibition remains to be determined. We investigated the possibility that these compounds interfere with the activity of insulin-like growth factors. Such activity can be suppressed or otherwise modulated by specific insulin-like growth factor-binding proteins.

High protein intake promotes the growth of hepatic preneoplastic foci in Fischer #344 rats: evidence that early remodeled foci retain the potential for future growth.

The effects of successive administration, withdrawal and readministration of high protein diets (20% casein) on the promotional growth, remodeling and regrowth of aflatoxin B1-induced preneoplastic liver lesions (foci) were examined. Weanling male Fischer 344 rats were given 10 intragastric doses of aflatoxin B1 at a level of 250 micrograms/kg body weight over a 2-wk dosing period (initiation). The subsequent 12-wk period was subdivided into four feeding periods, each lasting 3 wk (promotion).

Thermogenesis, low-protein diets, and decreased development of AFB1-induced preneoplastic foci in rat liver.

The development of hepatocellular, putatively preneoplastic, gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase positive (GGT+) foci and tumors induced by aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) has been shown to be reduced in male F344 rats fed a diet containing 6% protein (as casein). This reduction occurs despite increased energy intake, when compared with animals fed a diet containing 22% protein.

Associations between breast cancer, plasma triglycerides, and cholesterol

A case-control study investigating the association between plasma lipids and breast cancer was conducted among women aged 30-80 in Buffalo, NY. All eligible women from a large breast clinic and two area physicians' offices were requested to participate over a one-year period. Subjects completed a health questionnaire and donated a fasting blood sample prior to diagnostic breast biopsies. The 83 women found to have breast cancer (cases) had significantly higher plasma triglyceride values than did the 113 women found not to have breast cancer (controls).

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