Antioxidant activity of fresh apples.

Vitamin C is used as a dietary supplement because of its antioxidant activity, although a high dose (500 mg) may act as a pro-oxidant in the body1, 2. Here we show that 100 g of fresh apples has an antioxidant activity equivalent to 1,500 mg of vitamin C, and that whole-apple extracts inhibit the growth of colon- and liver- cancer cells in vitro in a dose-dependent manner.

Low-protein diet suppresses serum insulin-like growth factor-1 and decelerates the progression of growth hormone-induced glomerulosclerosis.

A low-protein (LP) diet has been associated with amelioration of renal function in glomerulosclerosis (GS). However, the mechanisms involved are still unclear. We have used a mouse transgenic for bovine growth hormone (GH), which develops progressive GS and exhibits consistently elevated levels of circulating GH and insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1, to study the effect of dietary protein restriction. LP (6% protein) and normal-protein (NP, 20% protein) diets were maintained for 30 weeks in mice with established GS of mild/moderate degree.

Insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) and IGF binding protein-3 as predictors of advanced-stage prostate cancer.

BACKGROUND: Plasma levels of insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) have been associated with the risk of prostate cancer. However, the association ofIGF-I with specific tumor stage and grade at diagnosis, which correlate with risk of recurrence and mortality, has not been studied rigorously.

Dairy products, calcium, phosphorous, vitamin D, and risk of prostate cancer (Sweden).

Dairy products consistently have been associated with an increased risk of prostate cancer, yet the mechanism of this relationship remains unknown. Recent hypotheses propose that 1,25 dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25 D) is protective for prostate cancer. One study in the United States found that calcium consumption, which can lower circulating 1,25 D, was associated with higher risk of advanced prostate cancer, and we sought to address this hypothesis in a distinct population.

Calcium and fructose intake in relation to risk of prostate cancer.

Laboratory and clinical data indicate an antitumor effect of 1,25(OH)2 vitamin D (1,25(OH)2D) on prostate cancer. High calcium intake suppresses formation of 1,25(OH)2D from 25(OH)D, thereby decreasing the 1,25(OH)2D level. Ingestion of fructose reduces plasma phosphate transiently, and hypophosphatemia stimulates 1,25(OH)2D production. We thus conducted a prospective study among 47,781 men of the Health Professionals Follow-Up Study free of cancer in 1986 to examine whether calcium and fructose intake influenced risk of prostate cancer.

Plasma Phospholipid Fatty Acids and Prostate Cancer Risk in the SELECT Trial.

Studies of dietary ω-3 fatty acid intake and prostate cancer risk are inconsistent; however, recent large prospective studies have found increased risk of prostate cancer among men with high blood concentrations of long-chain ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids ([LCω-3PUFA] 20:5ω3; 22:5ω3; 22:6ω3]. This case-cohort study examines associations between plasma phospholipid fatty acids and prostate cancer risk among participants in the Selenium and Vitamin E Cancer Prevention Trial.


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