Cancer

Cohort study of diet, lifestyle, and prostate cancer in Adventist men.

Dietary and lifestyle characteristics were evaluated in relation to subsequent prostatic cancer risk in a cohort of approximately 14,000 Seventh-day Adventist men who completed a detailed lifestyle questionnaire in 1976 and who were monitored for cancer incidence until the end of 1982. During the 6-year follow-up period, 180 histologically confirmed prostatic cancers were detected among some 78,000 man-years of follow-up.

A prospective study of tomato products, lycopene, and prostate cancer risk.

BACKGROUND:
Some data, including our findings from the Health Professionals Follow-Up Study (HPFS) from 1986 through January 31, 1992, suggest that frequent intake of tomato products or lycopene, a carotenoid from tomatoes, is associated with reduced risk of prostate cancer. Overall, however, the data are inconclusive. We evaluated additional data from the HPFS to determine if the association would persist.

Tomatoes or lycopene versus prostate cancer: is evolution anti-reductionist?

Occasionally, but not often, positive things happen in the field of cancer prevention science to popular, good-tasting foods. Cruciferous vegetables have been the subject of intense study, but these foods might be—to modify the expression—an easy pill but a hard food for the public to swallow. By contrast, tomatoes (scientifically classified as a fruit) have overcome their earlier reputation as an inedible and possibly toxic food to become one of the most heavily consumed fruits or vegetables in the Western diet—mostly in the form of pizza, salsa, chili, pasta sauce, and ketchup.

Effects of carotenoids on aflatoxin B1-induced mutagenesis in S. typhimurium TA 100 and TA 98.

The effects of beta-carotene, canthaxanthin, and extracts of tomato paste (containing lycopene) and orange juice (containing cryptoxanthin) onaflatoxin B1 (AFB1)-induced mutagenesis in S. typhimurium TA 100 and TA 98 were investigated. Inhibition of mutagenesis was studied during and following completion of AFB1 metabolism (i.e., after the addition of menadione), thereby permitting separate examination of the metabolic activation and phenotypic expression phases. Each experimental carotenoid, except lycopene, inhibited AFB1-induced mutagenesis in both tester strains.

Intake of carotenoids and retinol in relation to risk of prostate cancer.

BACKGROUND:
Several human studies have observed a direct association between retinol (vitamin A) intake and risk of prostate cancer; other studies have found either an inverse association or no association of intake of beta-carotene (the major provitamin A) with risk of prostate cancer. Data regarding carotenoids other than beta-carotene in relation to prostate cancer risk are sparse.

PURPOSE:
We concluded a prospective cohort study to examine the relationship between the intake of various carotenoids, retinol, fruits, and vegetables and the risk of prostate cancer.

Antioxidant activity of fresh apples.

Vitamin C is used as a dietary supplement because of its antioxidant activity, although a high dose (500 mg) may act as a pro-oxidant in the body1, 2. Here we show that 100 g of fresh apples has an antioxidant activity equivalent to 1,500 mg of vitamin C, and that whole-apple extracts inhibit the growth of colon- and liver- cancer cells in vitro in a dose-dependent manner.

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