Cancer

A meta-analysis of studies of dietary fat and breast cancer risk.

There is strong evidence that breast cancer risk is influenced by environmental factors, and animal experiments and human ecological data suggest that increased dietary fat intake increases the incidence of the disease. Epidemiological evidence on the relationship of dietary fat to breast cancer from cohort and case control studies has however been inconsistent. To examine the available evidence we have carried out a meta-analysis to summarise quantitatively the large published literature on dietary fat in the aetiology of breast cancer.

Intake of fat, meat, and fiber in relation to risk of colon cancer in men.

Some evidence suggests that diets high in animal fat or red meat may increase the risk of colon cancer, whereas high intake of fiber or vegetables may be protective. Frequently, intake of red meat has been a stronger risk factor than total fat. Because data from prospective cohort studies are sparse, we examined fat, meat, fiber, and vegetable intake in relation to risk of colon cancer in a cohort of 47,949 U.S. male health professionals who were free of diagnosed cancer in 1986.

Egg consumption and cancer of the colon and rectum.

We systematically reviewed 15 previous case-control and cohort studies that examined egg consumption as a risk factor for cancers of the colon andrectum. Nine of the 11 studies of colon cancer reported risk estimates consistent with a positive association; in three of these studies the association was statistically significant. The positive association for egg consumption was generally stronger for females than for males, and for cancer of the proximal, rather than distal colon.

Cohort studies of fat intake and the risk of breast cancer--a pooled analysis.

BACKGROUND:
Experiments in animals, international correlation comparisons, and case-control studies support an association between dietary fatintake and the incidence of breast cancer. Most cohort studies do not corroborate the association, but they have been criticized for involving small numbers of cases, homogeneous fat intake, and measurement errors in estimates of fat intake.

Environmental factors and cancer incidence and mortality in different countries, with special reference to dietary practices.

Incidence rates for 27 cancers in 23 countries and mortality rates for 14 cancers in 32 countries have been correlated with a wide range of dietary and other variables. Dietary variables were strongly correlated with several types of cancer, particularly meat consumption with cancer of the colon and fat consumption with cancers of the breast and corpus uteri. The data suggest a possible role for dietary factors in modifying the development of cancer at a number of other sites. The usefulness and limitations of the method are discussed.

Feasibility of a randomized trial of a low-fat diet for the prevention of breast cancer: dietary compliance in the Women's Health Trial Vanguard Study.

The Women's Health Trial Vanguard Study was conducted to examine the feasibility of a nationwide, randomized multicenter intervention trial to test the hypothesis that a low-fat diet followed for a period of 10 years will reduce breast cancer risk. Women ages 45-69 years at increased risk of breast cancer were randomized into intervention (low-fat diet, n = 184) and control (usual diet, n = 119) groups. On the basis of 4-day food records, baseline fat intakes were comparable in the two groups, averaging 1,718 kcal with 39% of energy as fat.

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