Egg consumption and cancer of the colon and rectum.

We systematically reviewed 15 previous case-control and cohort studies that examined egg consumption as a risk factor for cancers of the colon andrectum. Nine of the 11 studies of colon cancer reported risk estimates consistent with a positive association; in three of these studies the association was statistically significant. The positive association for egg consumption was generally stronger for females than for males, and for cancer of the proximal, rather than distal colon.

Cohort studies of fat intake and the risk of breast cancer--a pooled analysis.

Experiments in animals, international correlation comparisons, and case-control studies support an association between dietary fatintake and the incidence of breast cancer. Most cohort studies do not corroborate the association, but they have been criticized for involving small numbers of cases, homogeneous fat intake, and measurement errors in estimates of fat intake.

Environmental factors and cancer incidence and mortality in different countries, with special reference to dietary practices.

Incidence rates for 27 cancers in 23 countries and mortality rates for 14 cancers in 32 countries have been correlated with a wide range of dietary and other variables. Dietary variables were strongly correlated with several types of cancer, particularly meat consumption with cancer of the colon and fat consumption with cancers of the breast and corpus uteri. The data suggest a possible role for dietary factors in modifying the development of cancer at a number of other sites. The usefulness and limitations of the method are discussed.

Feasibility of a randomized trial of a low-fat diet for the prevention of breast cancer: dietary compliance in the Women's Health Trial Vanguard Study.

The Women's Health Trial Vanguard Study was conducted to examine the feasibility of a nationwide, randomized multicenter intervention trial to test the hypothesis that a low-fat diet followed for a period of 10 years will reduce breast cancer risk. Women ages 45-69 years at increased risk of breast cancer were randomized into intervention (low-fat diet, n = 184) and control (usual diet, n = 119) groups. On the basis of 4-day food records, baseline fat intakes were comparable in the two groups, averaging 1,718 kcal with 39% of energy as fat.

Aspects of the rationale for the Women's Health Trial.

A 5.5-fold range in breast cancer incidence rates in 21 countries shows strong correlation with national estimates of per capita intake of dietary fat, but not with other caloric sources (proteins and carbohydrates). It is argued that certain breast cancer and hormone factors may contribute little to the explanation of such international variations in incidence of this neoplasm.

Experimental evidence of dietary factors and hormone-dependent cancers.

Current awareness of the importance of environmental factors such as diet in the etiology of human cancer has stimulated renewed interest in animal models for studying effects of diet on tumorigenesis. Diet can influence cancer in animals by affecting the initiation or subsequent preneoplastic stage of tumorigenesis, but it has less effect on tumor growth. Caloric restriction has a general inhibitory influence on tumorigenesis. Dietary fat, on the other hand, tends to promote tumorigenesis, but only certain types of tumors, such as mammary tumors, are affected.


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