Studies that relate to population-based data on cancer prevalance and incidence
In a case-control study in a veterans hospital in Taiwan, we compared 237 histology-confirmed prostate carcinoma cases with 481 controls, frequency matched by age, for their consumption of vegetarian food, namely soybean products, rice, wheat protein and other vegetables. The multivariable logistic regression analysis showed a significant association with such food (odds ratio (OR)=0.67, 95% confidence interval (CI)=0.47, 0.94). This beneficial effect presented for men with body mass index (BMI) < or =25 kg m(-2) (OR=0.50, 95% CI=0.32, 0.76) but not for men with greater BMI.
A number of studies have evaluated the health of vegetarians. Others have studied the health effects of foods that are preferred or avoided by vegetarians. The purpose of this review is to look critically at the evidence on the health effects of vegetarian diets and to seek possible explanations where results appear to conflict. There is convincing evidence that vegetarians have lower rates of coronary heart disease, largely explained by low LDL cholesterol, probable lower rates of hypertension and diabetes mellitus, and lower prevalence of obesity.
OBJECTIVE:To review the epidemiological evidence for vegetarian diets, low-meat dietary patterns and their association with health status in adults. DESIGN:Published literature review focusing primarily on prospective studies and meta-analyses examining the association between vegetarian diets and health outcomes. RESULTS:Both vegetarian diets and prudent diets allowing small amounts of red meat are associated with reduced risk of diseases, particularly CHD and type 2 diabetes. There is limited evidence of an association between vegetarian diets and cancer prevention.
BACKGROUND:Cancer is the second leading cause of death in the United States. Dietary factors account for at least 30% of all cancers in Western countries. As people do not consume individual foods but rather combinations of them, the assessment of dietary patterns may offer valuable information when determining associations between diet and cancer risk. METHODS:We examined the association between dietary patterns (non-vegetarians, lacto, pesco, vegan, and semi-vegetarian) and the overall cancer incidence among 69,120 participants of the Adventist Health Study-2.
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