Adequacy - Vitamin D

Environmental factors in the etiology of type 1 diabetes.

Type 1 diabetes is considered to be an autoimmune disease in which T lymphocytes infiltrate the islets of pancreas and destroy the insulin producing beta cell population. Besides antigen specificity, the quality of immune reactivity against islet cell antigen(s) is an important determinant of the beta cell destruction. Much evidence indicates that the function of the gut immune system is central in the pathogenesis, as the regulation of the gut immune system may be aberrant in type 1 diabetes.

Cultured psoriatic fibroblasts from involved and uninvolved sites have a partial but not absolute resistance to the proliferation-inhibition activity of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3.

We examined the responsiveness of cultured dermal fibroblasts from biopsies of uninvolved and involved areas of skin from six patients with psoriasis to the cell-proliferation-inhibition activity of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25-(OH)2-D3). Cultured fibroblasts from age-matched controls responded to 1,25-(OH)2-D3 (at 0.01, 1, 10, and 100 microM) in a dose-dependent fashion, whereas cultured psoriatic fibroblasts from involved or uninvolved skin showed no inhibition of proliferation when exposed to 0.01 or 1 microM of 1,25-(OH)2-D3.

Vitamin D: A millenium perspective.

Vitamin D is one of the oldest hormones that have been made in the earliest life forms for over 750 million years. Phytoplankton, zooplankton, and most plants and animals that are exposed to sunlight have the capacity to make vitamin D. Vitamin D is critically important for the development, growth, and maintenance of a healthy skeleton from birth until death. The major function of vitamin D is to maintain calcium homeostasis. It accomplishes this by increasing the efficiency of the intestine to absorb dietary calcium.

Multiple nutritional deficiencies in infants from a strict vegetarian community

Severe nutritional deficiencies developed in four infants from a new vegan religious community. They had received breast milk until the age of 3 months; thereafter, breast milk was supplemented with or replaced by extremely low caloric-density preparations. All of the infants had profound protein-caloric malnutrition, severe rickets, osteoporosis, and vitamin B12 and other deficiencies. One infant died, while the three others had an uneventful recovery.

Effect of vegetarian diet on serum 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D concentrations during lactation.

The effect of maternal diet on serum 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D has not been determined in human lactation. Serum 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D, other calcitropic hormones, osteocalcin, and minerals were examined in lactating and nonlactating women consuming a vegetarian or nonvegetarian diet. The vegetarian diet was a macrobiotic diet consisting primarily of whole cereal grains and vegetables; dairy products, eggs, and meats were generally avoided.

Vegetarian diet as a risk factor for tuberculosis in immigrant south London Asians.

BACKGROUND:In a previous retrospective study of tuberculosis in south London among Asian immigrants from the Indian subcontinent Hindu Asians were found to have a significantly increased risk for tuberculosis compared with Muslims. This finding has been further investigated by examining the role of socioeconomic and lifestyle variables, including diet, as risk factors for tuberculosis in Asian immigrants from the Indian subcontinent resident in south London.

Relative weight, weight loss efforts and nutrient intakes among health-conscious vegetarian, past vegetarian and nonvegetarian women ages 18 to 50.

OBJECTIVE:To compare relative weight, weight loss efforts and nutrient intakes among similarly health-conscious vegetarian, past vegetarian and nonvegetarian premenopausal women. METHODS:Demographic data, lifestyle practices and weight loss efforts (by questionnaire), body mass index (BMI;kg/m2) and dietary intake (via multiple-pass 24-hour diet recall) were compared in a convenience sample of 90 current vegetarians, 35 past vegetarians and 68 nonvegetarians.

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